Data visualization is the new visualization techniques for data analysis and processing in large data-bases raised.This article provides an overview of the intellectual history of data visualization, describing and illustrating some significant advances along the way.
Visualization technique is a kind of theoretical method which uses the computer graphics and image at Processing techniques to converts the data into graphics or images displayed on the screen and interact processing. A primary goal of data visualization is to communicate information clearly and efficiently to users via the statistical graphics, plots, information graphics, tables, and charts selected. Tables are generally used where users will look-up a specific measure of a variable, while charts of various types are used to show patterns or relationships in the data for one or more variables.
In the larger picture – recounting the history of data visualization – it turns out that many of the milestone items have a story to be told. Each section below tries to illustrate the general themes with a few exemplars. In particular, this account attempts to tell a few representative stories of these periods, rather than to try to be comprehensive.
In statistical graphics, all of the modern forms of data display were invented: bar and pie charts, histograms, line graphs and time-series plots, contour plots, scatterplots and so forth. In thematic cartography, mapping progressed from single maps to comprehensive atlases, depicting data on a wide variety of topics (economic, social, moral, medical, physical, etc.), and introduced a wide range of novel forms of symbolism. During this period graphical analysis of natural and physical phenomena began to appear regularly in scientific publications as well.
By the mid-1800s, all the conditions for the rapid growth of visualization had been established – a ‘perfect storm’ for data graphics. Official state statistical offices were established throughout Europe, in recognition of the growing importance of numerical information for social planning, industrialization, commerce and transportation.
Although some attempts to display more than two variables simultaneously had occurred earlier in multiple time series, contour graphs and a variety of thematic maps, a number of significant developments extended graphics beyond the confines of a flat piece of paper.
There were few graphical innovations, and by the mid-1930s the enthusiasm for visualization which characterized the late 1800s had been supplanted by the rise of quantification and formal, often statistical, models in the social sciences.
Still under the influence of the formal and numerical zeitgeist from the mid-1930s on, data visualization began to rise from dormancy in the mid-1960s. By the end of this period significant intersections and collaborations would begin: Computer science research (software tools, C language, UNIX, etc.) and elsewhere would combine forces with developments in data analysis (EDA, psychometrics, etc.) and display and input technology (pen plotters, graphic terminals, digitizer tablets, the mouse, etc.).
During the last quarter of the 20th century data visualization blossomed into a mature, vibrant and multidisciplinary research area, as may be seen in software tools for a wide range of visualization methods and data types are available for every desktop computer. It may be argued that the greatest potential for recent growth in data visualization came from the development of interactive and dynamic graphic methods, allowing instantaneous and direct manipulation of graphical objects and related statistical properties.